Номер журнала:

№ 9 2020

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22455/2541-7894-2020-9-151-173

УДК / UDK: 82(091)
Об авторе:

Джеймс П. Цаппен (PhD, профессор, кафедра коммуникаций и медиа, Политехнический институт Ренсселера, Троя, Нью-Йорк, США)

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Аннотация: Спектакль играл важную роль в публичных представлениях и массовых собраниях в России и Германии середины ХХ века как средство формирования однородной политической культуры. В России ему противостояли понятия романного диалога, полифонии, гетероглоссии и карнавала, введенные М.М. Бахтиным. В Германии наиболее гротескным воплощением спектакля стала «Моя борьба» Адольфа Гитлера, в которой Гитлер провозглашает свое стремление к национальному единству Германии и восхваляет массовые собрания национал-социалистов, создававшие иллюзию сплоченности, навязанной силой оружия. Кеннет Берк в рецензии на «Мою борьбу» критиковал организованный Гитлером спектакль и последовательно оспаривал эту установку на протяжении всей своей жизни. В своей рецензии Берк подвергает критике стратегию Гитлера, который пытается объединить Германию, противопоставив ее тем, кто с ним не согласен, особенно негерманским этническим группам. Берка всю жизнь интересовали общественно-политические вопросы, и в своих работах он сформулировал теории и принципы, направленные на сочетание в политической культуре разнообразия и единства, противопоставляя разыгранному Гитлером спектаклю мнимого единения антиспектакль – идентификацию, драматизм, преодоление диалектических и эстетических границ и язвительный сатирический портрет ложного единства.
Ключевые слова: Кеннет Берк, М.М. Бахтин, Ги Дебор, Адольф Гитлер, спектакль, антиспектакль, политическая культура, идентификация, драматизм, диалектическое преодоление.
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